A FortiGuard Labs Threat Analysis Report
The FortiGuard Labs threat research team has been noticing for some time that Pastebin and similar services are being used by malware authors, sometimes to evade detection or to obscure their purposes. However, we had no idea how common this practice is or what sorts of malicious content might be stored there. To get to the bottom of this, I decided to scrape Pastebin myself to see what is going on.
One way to share plain-text data over the internet is to post it on Pastebin and then share it anywhere you want with just a link. But not everyone uses this service in the same way or for innocent purposes. Malware authors, for example, often store part of the malicious content in their malware on it, and then fetch it later from inside the malicious executable using the share link. A recent FortiGuard Labs blog on the Rocke coin mining malware shows one practical use case for this practice.
To take a closer look at this practice, and see how prevalent the misuse of this service is by cybercriminals, I decided to scrape all the pastes in Pastebin and process them for malicious content. At first, my goal was to look up malicious files, since Pastebin can be used as an evasion techniques. However, what I discovered was a wide variety of malicious scripts, stolen credentials, encoded content, and malware. The result of this research, based on examining thousands of pastes, is as follows.
Base64 Encoded Content: Over 8,000 of these files fell into this category. Among them there were obfuscated scripts, some hashes, and countless binary data. Surprisingly, I also found some ELF/PE executable files. Listed below is the MD5 hash of a few of these files and their status on VirusTotal.
Bash Script Files: Another approximately 1,000 files were bash script files. Most of the files were cryptocurrency miners and scripts used to install services. Otherwise, I couldn’t detect anything special about them using my filtering scripts.
Credentials and Sensitive Information: Over 6,000 of these files claimed to include stolen and hacked usernames and passwords for a variety of services, such as Spotify and Netflix, as well as some credit card information.
Pastebin is Just the Tip of the Iceberg
I only checked the Pastebin service for malicious files, but there are a number of similar services. However, some of them don’t index posted entries so they are not easy to scrape. Because of this, they may be even more interesting to cybercriminals – which also means the content on these other services may be even more interesting to cybersecurity professionals as well.
Read about the FortiGuard Security Rating Service, which provides security audits and best practices.